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Glaucoma

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Glaucoma

Glaucoma or kaach-bindu is a disease that damages your eyes optic nerve. In this condition, there is a fluid build-up in the front part of your eye. This excess fluid - increases the pressure in your eye, thus damaging your optic nerve over a period of time.

Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness for people over the age of 6o years of age. But this type of blindness can be prevented with early diagnosis and treatment

The normal eye pressure is 12-20mm of Hg. Anything above that is considered as high pressure.

The triad of Glaucoma

  • Raised Eye pressure
  • Optic Nerve Damage
  • Tunnel Vision

Types

  • Primary Open Angle:
    Most common type of glaucoma. Gradual phenomenon, where the eye does not drain fluid as well as it should. This increases the pressure over the eyeball - damaging the optic nerve in the process.
  • Angle closure Glaucoma:
    - In this type, the patients iris is very close to the drainage angle in their eye. This way the iris can end by blocking the drainage angle.
  • Acute Attack:
    When the drainage gets completely blocked, the eye pressure rises very quickly. This in an Ophthalmic Emergency. You should consult your ophthalmologist at the earliest, or there are chances that you might go blind.

Signs of an Acute Attack

  • Sudden blurriness of your vision
  • Severe eye pain
  • Severe headache
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Rainbow-coloured rings or halos are seen around lights.

Diagnosis

If there is a family history of glaucoma, one must always have their eyes and their pressure checked regularly.

Early diagnosis is the key that helps prevent the patient from going blind.

However there are multiple diagnostic tests that can help diagnose and treatment:

  • Periodic Applanation Tonometry:
    This measures the eye pressure. Normal eye pressure: 12-20mm of Hg.
  • Perimetry:
    This tests help to test your peripheral vision signals and detect any blind spots if any.
  • Optical Coherence Tomography:
    This specialized test visualizes the structure of your optic nerve. Any damage or change from the baseline measurements can be detected and recorded.
  • Ganglion Cell complex:
    The damage to these cells is the most crucial that leads to optic nerve damage.

Treatment

If diagnosed at an early stage of the disease, medical treatment can be helpful. If the pressure is not controlled by Medical therapy, your doctor might suggest a surgical line of treatment.

Medical treatment

There are multiple classes of drops that help reduce the eye pressure.

  • Prostaglandin Analogs
  • Beta Blockers
  • Alpha Agnosists
  • Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors

Surgical treatment

There are a number of reasons why medical therapy might not work like patient compliance. But there are surgical treatments to lower the intraocular pressure like:

  • Trabeculectomy
  • Selective laser Trabeculoplasty
  • Argon laser Trabeculoplasty
  • Device insertion

What is Glaucoma?

VissionTip : Get yourself tested regularly and have your eye pressure checked every time you visit an Ophthalmologist.

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